Choline Bitartrate- Benefits, side effects and dosage

What is Choline Bitartrate?

There are several people who suffer from either acute or chronic memory loss and also have impaired memory. With increased tension and depression in the lifestyle of human, the functioning of brain and heart is highly affected. Choline Bitartrate is a dietary supplement for all groups of people who are at risk of some kind of a nervous system disorder or cognitive disorder. These substances are similar to vitamin B and hence very commonly referred to as vitamin- B complex. The group, which is at high risk of choline deficiency, are pregnant women, athletes, and older people. The risk can be reduced by intake of choline bitartrate in the diet. The detailed studies have shown evidence of choline transport through placental tissues between infant and mother during pregnancy. Not only pregnancy but during lactation period choline presence in breastfed milk has been found. In old age due to the reduced amount of natural lubricant acetylcholine causes memory loss and reduction in other cognitive functions, choline bitartrate is highly recommended for this group of people. It is water soluble and needs to take regularly, though only a small portion of the population take these supplements regularly.

Choline Bitartrate

Choline Bitartrate

About Choline Bitartrate

Choline Bitartrate is a dietary supplement which is used in choline content in the human body. It is an essential nutrient to maintain the optimum health. Although choline is produced in a very amount in the human liver, it is important to include it as a dietary supplement in food. It is mainly found in food sources such as broccoli, fish, meats, peanuts, etc. Severe cases of memory loss and degenerated mental functioning are treated with the help of choline bitartrate. Hence, it is also commonly known as brain supplement. Choline has great potential for use as a dietary modulator for performances relation to human beings.

Choline Bitartrate is a combination of Choline with a chemical salt to increase its absorption. Other derivatives include a combination of choline with salt citrate known as choline citrate and with chloride known as choline chloride. To meet the amount of choline required to be taken with food as prescribed by FDI, the intake of this manufactured synthetic choline is taken. The intake ensures smooth performance of the nervous system and treats memory impairment.

Importance of Choline Bitartrate 

  • For functioning of nervous system

Choline is required to synthesize Acetylcholine, which is a neurotransmitter associated with memory, concentration, and learning ability.

  • In Signal Transduction

Signals are transferred across membranes through a highly bilateral flow of molecular actions or through an extra-cellular sensor that detects signals and transfers the message in the core of the cell through a protein i.e., phosphorylation cascade. Thus, the final element acts as a transcriptional regulator. Phospholipids act as important elements in transmembrane signaling. According to a study choline phospholipids like sphingomyelin, phosphatidylcholine, and their metabolites are important modulators and mediators of transmembrane signaling.

Choline is an essential nutrient for synaptic plasticity. Synaptic plasticity is the ability of synapses to strengthen or weaken over time depending on the levels of their activity. It plays a direct role in learning ability and remembering new things.

Choline also prevents the deposition of fats in the liver, which helps in normal fat and carbohydrate metabolism.

  • Anti-inflammatory

Chronic inflammation, which may result from stress, an animal-protein-rich diet, smoking, and alcohol use, is very common. Choline is highly effective at reducing inflammation.

  • Forms DNA and Cell Structures

DNA, which is responsible for building the entire body, also, needs Choline for its formation.

Choline and folate are key nutrients involved in the methyl group processes, used by the body to form a genetic material that helps build every system within the body.

  • Role in carcinogenesis

According to research, it has been found that Choline has its role in the change of the PKC signal. Choline is one of the main nutritional sources for groups of labile methyl. Its metabolism is interconnected with folate and methionine metabolism. So, the deficiency of choline reduces all of these methyl donors. Choline is the only sole nutrient for which dietary deficiency is related to the growth of cancer.

  • In heart diseases

An increased amount of Homocysteine in blood is found to increase the risk of cardiovascular disease. The Choline has been effective in reducing the Homocysteine concentration in blood, thus preventing heart diseases.

  • Composition of Choline Bitartrate

Choline Bitartrate has a chemical name,i.e.,  2- (hydroxymethyl)trimethylammonium Bitartrate. Its molecular weight is 253.25 and has an empirical formula of C9H19No7. It is a white crystalline powder (in supplements) and mainly soluble in water. Its solubility in water is the cause of continuous intake as dietary supplements. Choline tartrate is a vital element of lecithin that can be found in organs of many plants and animal. It is important as a predecessor of acetylcholine, methyl donor in different metabolic processes and helps in lipid metabolism.

  • Working of choline bitrate in brain

The low level of acetylcholine results in age-related memory loss problem and also impaired brain functioning. The presence of acetylcholine inappropriate amount leads to better speed in the brain due to optimization of communication between the cells. In coexistence with acetate, choline is metabolized in acetylcholine. The presence of acetylcholine leads to the production of a higher volume of the neurotransmitter. The presence of acetylcholine, which is a kind of lubricant for proper and enhanced functioning of nerve cells is deciding factor in smooth movements of muscles in the body. Though choline has no chemical interaction, it has a significant role in the production of acetylcholine. The presence of cholinergic receptors in the brain has a role in memory storage.

  • Working of choline bitrate in cells

Choline is an important factor in the production of phospholipids, which helps in the movement and signaling between the cells. There is evidence which shows the role of choline in signal transduction and other cellular functions.

Choline Bitartrate usage/dosage

Doses of choline vary significantly for every age group according to their metabolic needs. However, typically a dose of 250mg to 500mg can be used for used for general health purposes within a period of 24 hours. Choline concentration required on a daily basis may vary from 125 mg for infants to 550 mg for adult males and lactating females. Here is a detailed list of the dosage to be taken for each group

  • Infants and babies should be given a dose of 125-150 mg
  • Infants and babies: 125- 150 mg
  • Children ages 1-8: 150- 250 mg
  • Teens ages 8-13: 250- 375 mg
  • Women above age 14: 425- 550 mg
  • Men above age 14: 550 mg
  • Pregnant women: 450-550 mg
  • Women who are breastfeeding: 550 mg

Cholinesterase Inhibitors and their role

Cholinesterase inhibitors are supplements and drugs which play a significant role in brain function. The compound helps in increasing the levels of the neurotransmitters which is necessary for memory function. It also slows down the development of memory loss in elderly people and also keeps the sharp memory and high brain performance in younger people.

Cholinesterase (Also known as Acetylcholinesterase or AChE) is an enzyme which hydrolyzes or breaks Acetylcholine. It works to control the level of Acetylcholine in the brain. It also makes sure that the neurotransmitter interacting with receptors is adequate in required numbers.  But sometimes by snooping with this enzyme, the Acetylcholine levels can be increased which causes improvements in memory formation, retention, and recall. Cholinesterase inhibitors work to break down this important neurochemical which is inhibited by it. The production of these enzymes helps in development and increase of Acetylcholine in the brain. Increased activity at cholinergic receptors may lead to increased memory function and enhanced learning ability. The end result is heightened memory and learning abilities, along with increased focus for both healthy young adults and older people experiencing memory deficits. Cholinesterase inhibitors work to increase the plasticity of the synapses and increase the fluidity of brain.

How do Neurotransmitters work?

Neurotransmitters act as messengers and endogenous chemicals are responsible for delivering messages from one neuron to another. The communication takes place with the help of synapses. Neurotransmitters travel between synapses and bind to specific receptors that are designed to receive messages from particular chemical only. Each receptor is chemically specific. After receiving the signal nerve cells gets activated and the further process is achieved.

Choline and lactation

Choline found in the milk of the mother has impacted on the blood level of choline in the infant. Choline enters the milk supply either directly from the maternal blood supply, or inside the mammary epithelium choline-containing nutrients can be produced. Choline reaches the milk through a transporter specific for choline from the maternal blood supply into the mammary epithelial cells. At high concentrations, choline diffuses across the cell membrane into the mammary epithelium cell.

Types of choline supplements

It’s important to take the bioavailability of the form of choline chosen as dietary supplements. Though choline bitrate is good for the nervous system, its inability to penetrate through the blood-brain obstacles makes it unavailable for a major portion of the brain.

Supplements such as CDP Choline (Citicoline) and Alpha GCP functions as the ending product and is a predecessor to Phosphatidylcholine. Choline is delivered straight into the neural cells because of the bioavailable chemical. By using this kind of supplements into the diet can help in achieving better acetylcholine content.

Main sources of Choline Bitartrate

Naturally, in the human body, choline is produced in the liver and is used to reduce fat build up in the body. The rich sources of choline include following

  • Fishes like salmon
  • Eggs
  • Peanut and its products
  • Different types of beans

Symptoms of a choline deficiency include

The reduced level of either naturally synthesized or intake of choline can be the cause of health-related problems. The symptoms which indicate reduced level of choline in the body are

  • low energy levels of fatigue
  • memory loss
  • cognitive decline
  • learning disabilities
  • nerve damage
  • mood changes or disorders

Advantages of using choline Bitartrate in dietary supplements

Choline can be used as dietary supplements to overcome the lack of reduced and low-level production of choline in the body. It has several benefits which include the following-

Mental benefitsdue to an enhanced level of acetylcholine production in the brain.

  • Better long-term memory
  • Better short-term memory
  • Increased focus and alertness
  • Less brain fog
  • Control mood swings

Physical benefits

  • liver of fatty build-up
  • Strengthens cell membranes
  • Promotes healthy breast tissue
  • Increases cardiovascular efficiency

Other benefits include-

  • Faster reaction, and quicker thought processing
  • Prevents insomnia and improves REM sleep
  • Reduces ADHD and ADD symptoms
  • Removes excess cholesterol from and fats from the liver, leading to better liver health
  • Inflammation reduction
  • Decreases certain symptoms of Asthma
  • During pregnancy choline level is depleted hence its intake is important in preventing neural tube defect in the baby.

It also acts as a great health promoter for post-menopausal women as depletion of estrogen affects the choline production in the body. Estrogens act as precursor in choline production which decreases after menopause

It can be used in the treatment of the Bipolar disorder, manic depression by regulation of choline concentration in the nervous system.

The choline doesn’t affect very fast and hence its continuous intake can only suggest the possible benefits to the person. However, excessive intake may lead to several side effects in the person, including severe allergic reactions.

Side effects of Choline Bitartrate

Though choline has several benefits, but it also has several side effects. These side effects are as follows-

  • Body odor- due to increased production of choline
  • Allergic Reaction- enhancement in the production of several cellular enzymes
  • Excessive sweating- it may interfere with the body temperature leading to excessive sweating.
  • Upset stomach- intake oh high dose may interfere with the digestive system of the body causing disturbed digestion.
  • Decrease in appetite- it is very common in children who intake high amount of choline supplements. It can be treated with good lifestyle, including exercise.
  • Nausea- it is the result of the disturbed digestive system.
  • Diarrhea- it is common in old age and infants due to weak digestive metabolism.

The side effects can easily be overcome by discontinuing its intake for some time. But it is suggested that proper treatment to be taken if any of the side effects occurs.

Choline Bitartrate is very much essential as it maintains the choline content of the body. It has a lot of function, so one should definitely adapt choline bitartrate in his or her diet chart. But you need to be very careful that you should take the adequate amount only. Excess intake of choline bitartrate might affect your body as well as health adversely.  Before adding it to your diet chart, consult a doctor for its amount of doses.

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